Novel therapeutic nano-particles (lipocores): trapping poorly water soluble compounds
Perkins, Walter R.
Hirsh, Donald J.
Masters, Gregg R.
Christopher, Fecko J.
Janoff, Andrew S.
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The development of stable spherical lipid-coated drug particles that are termed ‘lipocores’ is reported here. Unlike conventional lipid-based particles (i.e. liposomes, emulsions, micelles), these particles are comprised solely of a core of a poorly water soluble drug surrounded by polyethyleneglycol conjugated lipid (PEG-lipid) and are formed via a ‘kinetic’ trapping process. These lipocore particles were made with the acyl chain of 16 carbon length (C16) acyl-chain derivatives of paclitaxel or vinblastine and with the polyene antifungal hamycin. Formation of the particles occurred regardless of the type of PEG-phospholipid used (i.e. acyl chain length, chain saturation, and polymer length) and could also be formed with the negatively charged lipid N-glutaryl-dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE-GA). Images from both freeze-fracture electron microscopy and electron cryo-microscopy revealed solid spherical structures with no internal lamellae for the PEG-lipid particles made with the C16 derivatives of paclitaxel (BrC16-T) or vinblastine (C16-Vin). From a solute distribution study of lipocores made with BrC16-T and distearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG2000 (DSPE-PEG2000), the particles were found to have no measurable aqueous captured volume. Fluorescence anisotropy and order parameter measurements revealed the core material of these particles to be highly immobilized. The mole ratio of BrC16-T:lipid in the lipocores was typically >90:<10 and as high as 98:2, and the refrigerated lipocores were stable for several months. BrC16-T/DSPE-PEG2000 lipocores of 50–100 nm particle size were far less toxic than paclitaxel (Taxol®) after intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.) administration in mice and were active against i.p. and subcutaneously (s.c.) planted human (OvCar3) ovarian carcinoma grown in SCID mice. It is believed the high drug:lipid ratio, the stability, and therapeutic efficacy of these novel particles make them a paradigm for delivery of poorly water soluble drugs and/or their hydrophobic derivatives.
Perkins, W.R.; Ahmad, I.; Li, X.; Hirsh, D.J.; Masters, G.R.; Fecko, C.J.; Lee, J.; Ali, S.; Nguyen, J.; Schupsky, J.; Herbert, C.; Janoff, A.S.; Mayhew, E., "Novel therapeutic nano-particles (lipocores): trapping poorly water soluble compounds," International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 200, Issue 1, 25 April 2000, Pages 27-39
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